Get A portrait of America : the demographic perspective PDF

By John Iceland

ISBN-10: 0520278186

ISBN-13: 9780520278189

ISBN-10: 0520278194

ISBN-13: 9780520278196

ISBN-10: 0520959108

ISBN-13: 9780520959101

Portrait of the USA describes our nation’s altering inhabitants and examines via a demographic lens a few of our such a lot urgent modern demanding situations, starting from poverty and financial inequality to racial tensions and future health disparities. Celebrated authorJohn Iceland covers a variety of issues, together with America's historic demographic progress; the yank relatives this present day; gender inequality; fiscal health and wellbeing; immigration and variety; racial and ethnic inequality; inner migration and home segregation; and well-being and mortality.

The dialogue of those issues is proficient through a number of resources, together with an exam of loved ones survey info, and through syntheses of current released fabric, either quantitative and qualitative. Iceland discusses the present concerns and controversies round those subject matters, highlighting their position in daily debates happening in Congress, the media, and in American residing rooms. every one bankruptcy contains ancient heritage, in addition to a dialogue of the way styles and developments within the usa evaluate to these in peer countries.

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These days many developed countries have what is termed below replacement fertility—fertility rates that are so low that if they do not increase, the country (in the absence of immigration) will eventually face a decline in its population. For populations to remain stable, women have to have on average just over two children (essentially to replace the mother and father and to allow for some infant mortality). 5. Mortality is quite low in these countries, women (and couples) are choosing to have small families, and often they invest heavily in the children they do have.

34 Many other social changes also accompanied fertility declines and thus may have played a role in reducing it. First, the United States transformed from a rural and agricultural society to a more urban and industrial one. In 1800 more than 90 percent of the population lived in rural areas, and 80 percent were engaged in agriculture. 37 Second, technological change and rising incomes may have served to reduce fertility. Technological progress spurred greater demand for an educated workforce. 39 Third, the changing role of women in society made it increasingly possible and desirable for women to work outside the home.

The total fertility rate in the United States, 1800–2010. Sources: 1800–1980 data from Gill, Glazer, and Thernstrom 1992, table 3–2; 1990–2010 data from Martin et al. 2012, table 4. 8 in 1957—a level not seen in the United States since the late 1890s. 31 It is important to note that these TFRs represent averages, and variability has always occurred among the experiences of women and couples. S. pattern of fertility decline does not altogether conform to demographic transition theory. Specifically, fertility began falling in the 1800s even before the onset of widespread mortality declines.

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A portrait of America : the demographic perspective by John Iceland

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