Download e-book for iPad: A Programming Language by Kenneth E. Iverson

By Kenneth E. Iverson

ISBN-10: 0471430145

ISBN-13: 9780471430148

Iverson K.E. A Programming Language. (Wiley, 1962)(ISBN 0471430145)

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The storage needed by the program at compile time can be determined by summing up the storage size of each variable using declaration statements. For example, the space complexity of a non-recursive function of calculating the factorial of number n depends on the number n itself. Space complexity = Space needed at compile time This includes memory requirement before execution starts. Run-time Space Complexity If the program is recursive or uses dynamic variables or dynamic data structures, then there is a need to determine space complexity at run-time.

For example, consider matrix M in Fig. 8. The column-major arrangement of elements would be as shown in Fig. 10. 1 5 9 2 6 10 3 7 11 4 8 12 (0, 0) (1, 0) (2, 0) (0, 1) (1, 1) (2, 1) (0, 2) (1, 2) (2, 2) (0, 3) (1, 3) (2, 3) Col. 0 Col. 3 Col. 2 Col. 0 ... Col. 1 Col. 0 Col. 1 . . Col. n − 1 . . Col. n−1 Memory locations Fig. 10 Column-major arrangement Linear Data Structure using Arrays 51 The address of A[i][ j] is computed as Address of (A[i][ j]) = Base address + Offset = Base address + (Number of columns placed before jth column ¥ size of column) ¥ (Size of element) + (Number of elements placed before in ith element in ith row) ¥ Size of element Here, the size of the column is the number of rows, that is, m.

Rather, there are certain problems, such as creating a ‘gourmet’ recipe or preserving world peace, that may be impossible to formulate in terms of a computer solution. Even if we feel that our ­problem can be solved on a computer, there is usually considerable scope in several problem parameters. Often, it is only through experimentation that reasonable values for these parameters can be found. If certain aspects of a problem can be expressed in terms of a formal model, it is usually beneficial to do so, for once a problem is formalized, we can look for solutions in terms of a precise model and determine whether a program already exists to solve that problem.

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A Programming Language by Kenneth E. Iverson


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