By Meredeth Turshen (eds.)
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Further, since domestic labor does not produce surplus value, neither the domestic servant nor the housewife can be conceptualized, in the narrow economic sense, as exploited by capital in their performance of it. The essential difference between the position of the housewife and that of the domestic worker lies in the fact that the domestic worker provides a service that is directly paid for. The domestic worker works in exchange for a wage from the employer, is subject to control and supervision, and may be fired as well as hired.
18, No. 3, December 1975, Women in Africa; Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1981, African women in the development process; ROAPE Numbers 27/28, Jan. 1983, Women, oppression and liberation; Journal of Southern African Studies Vol. 10, No. 1, Oct. 1983, Special issue on women in Southern Africa. 2. When the research scene at the Nordic Africa Institute was reorganized into “clusters” it soon became obvious that neither the culture research program nor the gender and sexuality program was going to have followers in the cluster setup (Mai Palmberg, personal communication 9 January 2010).
The RDP had been produced within the African National Congress (ANC) structures before 1994 and was enthusiastically embraced. By imposing the GEAR (Growth, Employment, and Redistribution) Program in the early years of independence, the elites reinforced an already existing structural adjustment program. Thus the new ruling class re-entrenched the apartheid systems and relationships of white control over the economy, with blacks now occupying the political terrain. Not much else changed. The redistribution of critical resources in education, health, shelter, transportation, employment, and land—those basic necessities that constitute the core of a national democratic revolution and that were so succinctly spelt out in the Freedom Charter—remained firmly in the hands of the market and the private sector.
African Women: A Political Ecomony by Meredeth Turshen (eds.)