By Joseph F. Albright
George Washington Univ. institution of drugs, Washington, D.C. Examines the key good points and features of the immune approach probably to be altered by way of the getting older procedure. reports the sluggish breakdown of the resistance to an infection within the elderly and discusses lifespan extension and dietary hold up of immunosenescence. DNLM: Immunity--Aged.
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Extra info for Aging, Immunity, and Infection
Planktonic bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics and host immune response. The formation of biofilms by P. aeruginosa has received considerable attention because it is a critical event in the devastating disease, cystic fibrosis (59,61). This same bacterium is found in most healthy individuals in whom it causes no disease. It is an opportunistic organism that only becomes pathogenic in compromised individuals. A brief account of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on the epithelial linings of the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients provides a concept of the process.
This is an excellent example of the diversion of host immune defenses (T cells and their cytokines) into paths that promote the welfare of the bacterial pathogen. There are other outstanding cases such as that of S. typhimurium (47). In this case, the bacterium secretes proteins via a type III mechanism that Aging and Altered Resistance to Infection 33 Table 2-4 Some Interactions of Bacterial Lectins-glycoconjugates Bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae Mycobacteria Salmonella Serratia marcescens Shigella flexneri Vibrio cholerae Streptococcus pyogenes Escherichia coli (urinary pathogens) Lectin type Type 1 & 3 Mycotin P-related (F7–F16) G-I G-II G-III Clostridium difficile Escherichia coli Streptococcus pneumoniae Escherichia coli (sepsis pathogen) Escherichia coli (urinary pathogen) Vibrio cholerae Helicobacter pylori Mycoplasma galliseptum; M.
Systematic studies by Orme and associates have shown that there is a difference in the way mice (young and old) cope with M. tuberculosis infection depending on the route of infection and the dose (number) of bacteria provided to the animals (17–19). Aged mice were definitely more susceptible than young when a relatively high number of bacteria was given intravenously. However, when a much smaller number of bacteria was provided aerogenically (modeling a realistic human exposure) the course of infection in the lungs of young and aged mice was similar.
Aging, Immunity, and Infection by Joseph F. Albright