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This leaves the carbon in a very reactive state, and a second acetyl group carried by a carrier protein with the help of phosphopantetheine, which has a sulfur group connection, can be joined to it through the action of the enzyme malonyl transferase. 14 Fatty acid synthesis from acetyl CoA. leaving a 4-carbon chain still connected to an SH group at the carboxyl end. This SH group is the docking end for all the enzymes that the fatty acid synthase complex comprises. These enzymes catalyze the addition of two carbon acetyl groups in sequence to the methyl end of the carbon chain until the final products, palmityl CoA and then palmitic acid, are produced.

To do this, the membrane must be intact and in the form of a continuous closed vesicle. If the membrane is disrupted, coupling will not occur. Respiration may occur, but ATP synthesis will not. 13) complex and provide a proton gradient sufficient to drive ATP synthesis by causing a dehydration of ADP and Pi. 13 The F1F0 ATPase. Note that the lower portion is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane while the upper part protrudes out into the matrix. The two parts can be separated. The upper part is the F1 part.

Glycolysis is inhibited when phosphofructokinase is inhibited. This occurs when levels of fatty acids in the cytosol rise, as in the instance of high rates of lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation or with the feeding of high-fat diets. Phosphofructokinase activity is increased when the fructose6-phosphate or cAMP levels rise. Exercise stimulates the flux of fructose-6-phosphate through the phosphofructokinase reaction. Stimulation occurs also when fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels rise. Phosphofructokinase is activated by divalent ions.

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