By Richard Clogg
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Additional resources for Balkan Society in the Age of Greek Independence
The foundations of the Ionian society and state had been slowly laid during the four centuries of Venetian domination. 16 The swift changes that took place during the thirty years under 44 examination can be rendered meaningful only if seen as a transformation of a determinate social and political structure. If we are to start from the prevailing mode of production the best approach would be through the question of land tenure. Khiotis in his monograph on the feudal estates of Corfu 17 writes that the first feudal grants were made by the Byzantine Emperor Alexios in the eleventh century.
In their own trading activities and those of other traders, fellow-villagers and preferably relatives, in commercial ventures between Austria and Italy, 31 in moneylending which sometimes took the form of loans to the wretched Balkan peasantry who were thus obliged to sell their crops at cut prices in anticipation of the harvest, and finally in banking enterprises in Vienna. 32 What money came back into the land of their origin was mainly in the form of donations for building, renovation and decoration of churches and monasteries, of cash remittances to relatives, and of funds for the rebuilding of the family house, for charity, for the establishment of schools and the provision of scholarships or for the construction of works of public utility.
Shaw, Between Old and New, The Ottoman Empire under Selim III, 1789-1807 (Cambridge, Mass. 1971) 75-76, 83-84, 175. 60, See note 19 above; Asdrachas, op. , 168. It is interesting to note that at least as late as the 1860's the practice of paying farm labourers in agricultural produce had not died out in certain regions of the Balkans (FO 83, vol 334 1 Report from the British Consul at Monastir, 23 Novebmer, 1869). , 168. 3 and Structuxe Sociale et ~veloppement Culturel des villes sud-est Euxopeennes et Adriatiques aux XVIIe- XVIIIe si~cles (Bucharest 1975).
Balkan Society in the Age of Greek Independence by Richard Clogg